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                                                                       Vitamins  and Minerals


Useful conversions:


1 µg = 1 mcg = 1 microgram = 1/1,000,000 of a gram

1 mg = 1 milligram = 1/1,000 of a gram

1 g = 1 gram

#1As cholecalciferol. 1 µg cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.



Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) Chart for Infants & Children

NUTRIENT 0-6 mths 7-12mths 1-3 yrs 4-8 yrs

RDA Vitamins (Per Day)

vitamin A – retinol 400* µg 500* µg 300 µg 400 µg

vitamin C – ascorbic acid 40* mg 50* mg 15 mg 25 mg

vitamin D #1 5* µg 5* µg 5* µg 5* µg

vitamin E 4* mg 5* mg 6 mg 7 mg

vitamin K 2.0* µg 2.5* µg 30* µg 55* µg

vitamin B1 – thiamin 0.2* mg 0.3* mg 0.5 mg 0.6 mg

vitamin B2 – riboflavin 0.3* mg 0.4* mg 0.5 mg 0.6 mg

vitamin B3 – niacin 2* mg 4* mg 6 mg 8 mg

vitamin B5 – pantothenic acid 1.7* mg 1.8* mg 2* mg 3* mg

vitamin B6 – pyridoxine 0.1* mg 0.3* mg 0.5 mg 0.6 mg

vitamin B12 – cyanocobalamin 0.4* µg 0.5* µg 0.9 µg 1.2 µg

biotin 5* µg 6* µg 8* µg 12* µg

choline 125* mg 150* mg 200* mg 250* mg

folate – folic acid 65* µg 80* µg 150 µg 200 µg



Recommended Daily Allowances for Minerals

calcium 210* mg 270* mg 500* mg 800* mg

chromium 0.2* µg 5.5* µg 11* µg 15* µg

copper 200* µg 220* µg 340 µg 440 µg

fluoride >0.01* mg 0.5* mg 0.7* mg 1* mg

iodine 110* µg 130* µg 90 µg 90 µg

iron 0.27* mg 11 mg 7 mg 10 mg

magnesium 30* mg 75* mg 80 mg 130 mg

manganese 0.003* mg 0.6* mg 1.2* mg 1.5* mg

molybdenum 2* µg 3* µg 17 µg 22 µg

phosphorus 100* mg 275* mg 460 mg 500 mg

selenium 15* µg 20* µg 20 µg 30 µg

zinc 2* mg 3 mg 3 mg 5 mg

potassium 0.4* g 0.7* g 3.0* g 3.8* g

sodium 0.12* g 0.37* g 1.0* g 1.2* g

chloride 0.18* g 0.57* g 1.5* g 1.9* g





Recommended Daily Allowances for Older Children (9 to 18 Years)

NUTRIENT Male 9-13 Yrs Male 14-18 Yrs  Female 9-13 Yrs  Female 14-18 Yrs

RDA Vitamins (Per Day)

vitamin A – retinol 600 µg 900 µg 600 µg 700 µg

vitamin C – ascorbic acid 45 mg 75 mg 45 mg 65 mg

vitamin D #1 5* µg 5* µg 5* µg 5* µg

vitamin E 11 mg 15 mg 11 mg 15 mg

vitamin K 60* µg 75* µg 60* µg 75* µg

vitamin B1 – thiamin 0.9 mg 1.2 mg 0.9 mg 1.0 mg

vitamin B2 – riboflavin 0.9 mg 1.3 mg 0.9 mg 1.0 mg

vitamin B3 – niacin 12 mg 16 mg 12 mg 14 mg

vitamin B5 – pantothenic acid 4* mg 5* mg 4* mg 5* mg

vitamin B6 – pyridoxine 1.0 mg 1.3 mg 1.0 mg 1.2 mg

vitamin B12 – cyanocobalamin 1.8 µg 2.4 µg 1.8 µg 2.4 µg

biotin 20* µg 25* µg 20* µg 25* µg

choline 375* mg 550* mg 375* mg 400* mg

folate – folic acid #3 300 µg 400 µg 300 µg 400 µg



Recommended Daily Allowances for Minerals

calcium 1300* mg 1300* mg 1300* mg 1300* mg

chromium 25* µg 35* µg 21* µg 24* µg

copper 700 µg 890 µg 700 µg 890 µg

fluoride 2* mg 3* mg 2* mg 3* mg

iodine 120 µg 150 µg 120 µg 150 µg

iron 8 mg 11 mg 8 mg 15 mg

magnesium 240 mg 410 mg 240 mg 360 mg

manganese 1.9* mg 2.2* mg 1.6* mg 1.6* mg

molybdenum 34 µg 43 µg 34 µg 43 µg

phosphorus 1250 mg 1250 mg 1250 mg 1250 mg

selenium 40 µg 55 µg 40 µg 55 µg

zinc 8 mg 11 mg 8 mg 9 mg

potassium 4.5* g 4.7* g 4.5* g 4.7* g

sodium 1.5* g 1.5* g 1.5* g 1.5* g

chloride 2.3* g 2.3* g 2.3* g 2.3* g




Recommended Daily Allowances for Adults (19 Years and Up)

NUTRIENT Male 19-50 Yrs Male >50 Yrs Female 19-50 Yrs Female >50 Yrs

RDA Vitamins (Per Day)

vitamin A – retinol 900 µg 900 µg 700 µg 700 µg

vitamin C – ascorbic acid 90 mg 90 mg 75 mg 75 mg

vitamin D #1 #5 5* µg 10* µg

5* µg 10* µg

vitamin E 15 mg 15 mg 15 mg 15 mg

vitamin K 120* µg 120* µg 90* µg 90* µg

vitamin B1 – thiamin 1.2 mg 1.2 mg 1.1mg 1.1 mg

vitamin B2 – riboflavin 1.3 mg 1.3 mg 1.1 mg 1.1 mg

vitamin B3 – niacin 16 mg 16 mg 14 mg 14 mg

vitamin B5 – pantothenic acid 5* mg 5* mg 5* mg 5* mg

vitamin B6 – pyridoxine 1.3 mg 1.7 mg 1.3 mg 1.5 mg

vitamin B12 #2 2.4 µg 2.4 µg 2.4 µg 2.4 µg

biotin 30* µg 30* µg 30* µg 30* µg

choline 550* mg 550* mg 425* mg 425* mg

folate – folic acid #3 400 µg 400 µg 400 µg 400 µg


Recommended Daily Allowances for Minerals

calcium 1000* mg 1200* mg 1000* mg 1200* mg

chromium 35* µg 30* µg 25* µg 20* µg

copper 900 µg 900 µg 900 µg 900 µg

fluoride 4* mg 4* mg 3* mg 3* mg

iodine 150 µg 150 µg 150 µg 150 µg

iron 8 mg 8 mg 18 mg 8 mg

magnesium #4 400/420 mg 420 mg 310/320 mg 320 mg

manganese 2.3* mg 2.3* mg 1.8* mg 1.8* mg

molybdenum 45 µg 45 µg 45 µg 45 µg

phosphorus 700 mg 700 mg 700 mg 700 mg

selenium 55 µg 55 µg 55 µg 55 µg

zinc 11 mg 11 mg 8 mg 8 mg

potassium 4.7* g 4.7* g 4.7* g 4.7* g

sodium #5 1.5* g 1.3* g 1.5* g 1.3* g

chloride #5 2.3* g 2.0* g 2.3* g 2.0* g




Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) Recommendations (#)

 1: Pregnant women from 31 to 50 need slightly more magnesium (360 mg) than those between 19 to 30 years old (350 mg). Women from 31 to 50 who are breastfeeding also require slightly more magnesium (320 mg) than those between 19 to 30 years old (310 mg).

2 : As 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, FNB advises those older than 50 years to meet their Recommended Daily Allowances for it by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12.

3 : In view of evidence linking folate deficiency with neural tube defects in the fetus, FNB recommends that women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of folate from supplements or fortified foods, in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet.

4 : Men from 31 to 50 need slightly more magnesium (420 mg) than those from 19 to 30 years old (400 mg). Women from 31 to 50 also need slightly more magnesium (320 mg) than those from 19 to 30 years old (310 mg).

5 : Adults over 70 years need slightly different levels of vitamin D (15µg), sodium (1.2g), and chloride (1.8g).

For a list of the 33 top ranked supplements that meet RDA requirements, see Best Multi Vitamin Products.



Recommended Daily Allowances for Pregnancy / Lactating Mothers

NUTRIENT Pregnancy 14-18 Yrs Pregnancy 19-50 Yrs Lactation 14-18 Yrs Lactation 19-50 Yrs

Recommended Daily Allowances for Vitamins

vitamin A – retinol 750 µg 770 µg 1200 µg 1300 µg

vitamin C – ascorbic acid 80 mg 85 mg 115 mg 120 mg

vitamin D #1 5* µg 5* µg 5* µg 5* µg

vitamin E 15 mg 15 mg 19 mg 19 mg

vitamin K 75* µg 90* µg 75* µg 90* µg

vitamin B1 – thiamin 1.4 mg 1.4 mg 1.4 mg 1.4 mg

vitamin B2 – riboflavin 1.4 mg 1.4 mg 1.6 mg 1.6 mg

vitamin B3 – niacin 18 mg 18 mg 17 mg 17 mg

vitamin B5 – pantothenic acid 6* mg 6* mg 7* mg 7* mg

vitamin B6 – pyridoxine 1.9 mg 1.9 mg 2.0 mg 2.0 mg

vitamin B12 2.6 µg 2.6 µg 2.8 µg 2.8 µg

biotin 30* µg 30* µg 35* µg 35* µg

choline 450* mg 450* mg 550* mg 550* mg

folate – folic acid #3 600 µg 600 µg 500 µg 500 µg


Recommended Daily Allowances for Minerals

calcium 1300* mg 1000* mg 1300* mg 1000* mg

chromium 29* µg 30* µg 44* µg 45* µg

copper 1000 µg 1000 µg 1300 µg 1300 µg

fluoride 3* mg 3* mg 3* mg 3* mg

iodine 220 µg 220 µg 290 µg 290 µg

iron 27 mg 27 mg 10 mg 9 mg

magnesium #6 400 mg 350/360 mg 360 mg 310/320 mg

manganese 2.0* mg 2.0* mg 2.6* mg 2.6* mg

molybdenum 50 µg 50 µg 50 µg 50 µg

phosphorus 1250 mg 700 mg 1250 mg 700 mg

selenium 60 µg 60 µg 70 µg 70 µg

zinc 12 mg 11 mg 13 mg 12 mg

potassium 4.7* g 4.7* g 5.1* g 5.1* g

sodium 1.5* g 1.5* g 1.5* g 1.5* g

chloride 2.3* g 2.3* g 2.3* g 2.3* g